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Pragmatic project management

In a previous blog, we looked at the PRINCE2 themes and how they could be applied to an organisational change project.  The PRINCE2 themes provide an excellent philosophical basis for the initiation and management of organisational change projects, however to ensure success and realisation of your goals, some degree of documentation is required.

One of the most common preconceptions of PRINCE2 is that it is a ‘heavy’ or even ‘unwieldy’ methodology, introducing draconian levels of monitoring, reporting and control.  The reality however is quite different.  Rather than insisting on particular documents, PRINCE2 only insists that key principles are considered and pragmatic, appropriate solutions implemented.

The most well known PRINCE2 document is the Project Initiation Document or PID.  The PID is the document that, when agreed and ‘signed off’, becomes the basis of the delegated authority a project manager needs to commence their work.  Although in in truest form, the PID is actually a collection of documents and the culmination of the first phase of the project, it is not unreasonable to see the creation of a PID as the initiation phase in itself.  If this is where your projects typically start, how do you make the process simple, effective, and aligned to the organisation’s goals?

In many organisations unaccustomed to project management rigour, we have used a single-page PID template that has proved enormously successful.  The stipulation of a single page synopsis ensures brevity and efficiency, and the provided sections ensure the key requirements of a PID are fully considered.

The format and structure of the PID are used to create regular tracking reports such as the one shown below.  We use PowerPoint to create both PID and tracking reports, to enforce the single-page approach, reduce the need for repetition of information in different formats (reports are often required to be presented), and because the PowerPoint structure essentially acts as a ‘digital binder’, allowing progress to be visually tracked with the click of a button.

If you would like to make use of this template, click here or on the slideshare logo in the above preview and choose save on the destination page.  If you have any questions on using the document just get in touch, we’d be delighted to help!

The power of appreciation

At the beginning of any training day, it is good practice to begin with a review of the previous day.  These sessions can take many forms, from a list of outstanding questions to personal reflections on particular points of resonance.

I had the pleasure of co-delivering an event with an incredibly talented executive coach who had her own particular method for orchestrating the session.  At the beginning of each day, rather than asking for reflections, comments or questions, she would ask for an ‘appreciation’, a learning or positive experience as a result of a contribution from another member of the group.

The process of appreciation created a unique, collaborative atmosphere to begin the day’s activities.  Each member of the group was made acutely aware of the value they personally brought to everyone else’s learning, and the very language of the word ‘appreciation’ ensured that the contributions were presented in a constructive and progressive tone.

We’re all accustomed to the positive-only nature of the Facebook ‘like’ – here is a simple tactic for using the same ethos in your training approach.

Influencing others: Lessons from Reg Revans

Reg Revans, the father of Action Learning, contributed so much to our knowledge and understanding of the learning process and, I would contend, one of his most significant contributions was his Principle of Insufficient Mandate, which states that “those unable to change themselves are unable to change what goes on around them.”

This seemingly simple statement captures the very essence of influence.  If I desire to influence a change in somebody else’s behaviour then I must first examine my own behaviour and seek to understand how I should modify my behaviour to effect a change in theirs.  Like the very best of approaches – simple and yet highly effective.

I recall, many years ago, being asked by the CEO of a large manufacturing organisation to help him with the way in which his Board were operating, or, more specifically, not operating.  His request was quite simple: my Board are not working effectively as a team – can you work with them and help them to be more aligned, more cohesive and more focused on collaboration and performance.  My first question to him was, “What are you doing to encourage or give permission for their current behaviours?”.  He replied that I must have misunderstood his request for the issue was with them and not with him.  And so began a conversation that has been repeated many times through the intervening years.  Initially he could not see the fact that he was directly and indirectly influencing their behaviours and, in all likelihood, providing permission for them to operate in the ways that he deemed to be ineffective.

Through a series of conversations we explored the nature of the team and the way in which he influenced them thorough his words, his actions, and, very specifically in this case, by not challenging certain behavioural patterns.  He came to understand that by not challenging he was, in effect, giving permission for the continuance of the very behaviours that he sought my help in addressing.

And so the conversations turned from working with his team to working with him to help him to be more clear, more focussed and more consistent in his leadership style.  Changes were noticed very quickly by his team and they began to modify their behaviours in line with  his new behaviours and expectations which were articulated as much in actions as they were in words.

The CEO came to a deep and insightful understanding of Revan’s mandate – he modified his behaviours and, by doing so, influenced those round him to modify theirs.  The change was aligned, consistent and sustainable.  More importantly, it was personally owned and led by the CEO, not issued as a directive to others that would, with no doubt at all, resulted in compliance at best.

Defining a transformational future state

Developing a future state scenario for a business, team or even on a personal level, can be a challenging process and we tend to approach this task by initially referring to the current state.  Indeed Lewin’s work on organisational change would strongly advocate this to be the start point.  Whilst I would not disagree with this, I think we need to be cautious in the extent to which our review of the current state limits our horizons on creating the future state.

In such a case, we would develop the change proposition by defining the current state (A) then defining the future state (B) and then, quite naturally, planning the route from A to B with a focus on making this transition as seamless as possible.

Whilst there is good logic in this approach the usual experience is that the definition of B is constrained by the experience of A.  As we define B we do so with direct reference to A and so tend to create an ‘away from’ position for organisational or personal change as opposed to a ‘go to’ position.  An ‘away from’ position leads us inexorably to consider all that is wrong with the current state and create remediation measures.  The resultant logical incrementalism is useful but in my experience constrains really powerful creative thinking and transformational change.

A better approach is to understand A, ignore B as a remediation position, or incremental evolution position, and instead define the ideal future state.  This should be done with reference only to the question, “If everything was entirely in our gift what we create?”  The freedom of being able to think about our business is such unconstrained terms is empowering and very exciting.  I term the resultant position ‘D’, which is, by definition, more creative, more challenging and more future focused than ‘B’ ever would be.

Of course, D is an idealized position. We cannot control our destinies to that extent and so, having created D we need to run it through pragmatic filters so that we have a proposition that is achievable.  This filtering process is done from a future focus transition from ideality to reality but is, interestingly, still not constrained by our knowledge and experience of position A, current state.

The pragmatic filtering process, then, takes us back from D to position C.  I have yet to encounter a situation where position C is not further ahead than B, more challenging and beneficial than B, more exciting and inspiring than B, and delivers a more significant value proposition than B.

What we are doing is pushing the boundary and then resetting our definition of what is possible in a way which is free and liberated from the learned helplessness and conditioned limitations of our current state.

PRINCE2 themes in organisational change

In order to deliver effective organisational change, consistency and constancy of purpose is vital. What is also vital is consistency and constancy of the management approach.

For some reason, when it comes to organisational change, the standard structures and rigour of traditional project management methodology and techniques are often overlooked, yet properly understood and implemented they provide the vital link required to turn good intent into practical and sustainable outcomes.

When considering project management techniques, emphasis is normally placed on the procedures, meetings, documentation and reports. These are seen as tools of CONTROL, yet project management methodology is underpinned by principles of operation that actually RELEASE people to deliver organisational change, give them true ACCOUNTABILITY and DECISION RIGHTS.

PRINCE2 has become the de-facto stadard for project management in the UK, particularly in public sector organisations. Those on the fringes of PRINCE2 projects often have rather disparaging opinions of it, regarding it as heavy, inflexible and draconian, yet at its heart are a series of PRINCIPLES and THEMES that, when appropriately applied, have wonderful flexibility and relevance in organisational change projects and programmes.

So how might we apply PRINCE2 for effective delegation and individual accountability in an organisational change project? Firstly we must start with a basic principle:

Project management is a mechanism to promote individual ACCOUNTABILITY through DELEGATED AUTHORITY. At the outset, that authority is ASSUMED, but must be JUSTIFIED on an ongoing basis. In essence, project management is about TRUST, and that trust has parameters – abuse the trust and you lose it.

How does that sound so far? Fairly sensible right? OK, now let’s look at the parameters of how ongoing authority is justified…

PRINCE2 has 7 THEMES that guide decision making throughout a project management process. When adapting or adopting a project management methodology that works for you, don’t focus on the various PIDs, logs and reports, instead focus on ensuring that these 7 themes are intact as these are the true heart of the method and provide the parameters by which ongoing accountability is justified.

Theme 1: Business Case
A business case drives all decision-making in the project – without a business case, there is no justification for investment. At the outset, and throughout the project we must ask whether the organisational change will deliver or contribute to the business goals, either qualitatively or quantitatively.

Theme 2: Organisation
The organisation of a project ensures that all voices are heard and stakeholders are managed. It ensures the business gets what it wants and needs, the end ‘users’ are properly consulted and engaged, and the delivery team understands what it should be delivering. Organisation is a recipe for engagement and inclusion in the organisational change process.

Theme 3: Quality
Quality focuses on ensuring that the project’s outcomes are fit for purpose. In considering quality, have we fully defined what we want, and do any compromises we make (there WILL be compromises!) undermine these standards. Quality ensures that the change we get does what we NEED it to do.

Theme 4: Plans
Plans provide for effective communication and management. Is the project ‘under control’? Is everything going as expected? If there are problems, are the right people involved to make the necessary decisions? Plans give us a mechanism to inform and consult the business on the route to sustainable organisational change.

Theme 5: Risk
Risk ensures that potential variations to a project’s outcomes are properly evaluated, monitored and reported. Although risk has negative connotations, as this actually considers variations, they can also be positive, allowing us to properly recognise previously unforseen opportunities. Risk forces us to constantly consider the outcomes of organisational change activity and it’s impact on the wider business.

Theme 6: Change
The Change theme provides the controls by which we deal with the decisions that will inevitably need to be made within a project. Trade-offs and compromise are a necessary part of project management – schedules change, budgets change and resourcing varies. Change provides clear and defined escalation routes, and the paramaters for true delegated authority.

Theme 7: Progress
Progress provides the mechanisms by which we keep project stakeholders fully informed. How often should we report on progress? How do we provide the information? What shouldn’t wait for a progress report? Progress ensures that stakeholders remain fully engaged with the organisational change process.

So, 7 themes, and not a single document, report, log or register mentioned. Instead a common sense checklist to ensure that projects stay on track, people remain engaged and the change you want is the change you get.

The power of the question

I recently had the privilege of working with the executive Board of a global organisation and was asked to observe a Board meeting and Strategy session and then provide feedback on their performance against the characteristics of a high performance team.

The team was, as you would expect, very male dominated in terms of both gender and behaviour, and discussions were dominated by knowledge holders.  One of the few women in the team was very evidently the most strategically capable and yet her contributions to the strategic debate totalled less than 10% by volume and certainly less than 10% by influence.  Each time she raised an opportunity or discussion point one or other of her male colleagues would point out that, in their considered experience, they had tried this before and it hadn’t worked, or that her idea would never work, or worse of all, that she clearly did not understand the complexities of the business in the way that they did.  Gradually, and somewhat expectedly, her contributions diminished and the old guard maintained their control over the discussions.

We had a short coaching session part-way through the meetings and explored how she felt about the way in which she was being treated, how she was doing and how she could enhance her style to secure greater leverage within the debate.  I pointed out that a number of her colleagues were adopting the position of expert, either through knowledge or experience, and, as such, were difficult to deal with in the debate, prior to suggesting that she should consider using questions to steer the debate.  We discussed the fact that an insightful, well-phrased and well-timed question has tremendous power to significantly influence others’ thinking.

The impact on the group of her new approach was dramatic – her questions imposed a rigour and depth to the debate that was previously missing.  The group began to more fully debate their strategy, their context and circumstances, their competitive positioning and their value proposition.  Through her questions she was able to exert influence on the group and her male colleagues were able, in time, to look beyond the perspective of their expertise and adopt a more open-minded, questioning approach.

She was incredibly pleased with the process and the outcomes, as was the group.  All was going well until, after one particularly insightful question that acted as a catalyst for one of her colleagues and challenged him to change his thinking, he responded with a new position.  Her thought was “Fantastic, I have really influenced him,” but sadly his closing comment was, “I had never thought of that before – I have inspired myself.”

Perhaps real self-awareness and change takes a little longer than she expected.

Vmax is supporting International Womens Day 2013.  To find out more about the challenges still faced by women around the world, visit http://internationalwomensday.com.

The dance of change

I was reflecting on the nature of organisational change recently and thinking about the relatively short half-life of behaviour change stimulated from development programmes.  Participants return from the programme with great enthusiasm to put their learning into practice in the workplace and are met with resistance and, indeed looks of incredulity from their colleagues.  If we listen carefully we can hear work colleagues asking, “What’s happened to John?” and hearing various forms of the typical reply, namely, “Oh he’s been on a course – he’ll be back to normal in a couple of days.”

Of course, what typically happens is that the norms and conventions of the team and the business, both explicit and tacit, exert conscious and subconscious pressure on our programme participants and they, inevitably, return to their pre-existing patterns of behaviour and the hajourneylf-life of knowledge and efficacy of change is once again reduced.

The reality is that we are each of us engaged in habitually conditioned patterns of behaviour with others and any unilateral change is likely to be met with resistance as we are, in effect, changing the pattern.  This is akin to a dance. There are specific steps and patterns which each partner knows and understands and, from that level of understanding, flows an expectation of behaviours from themselves and their dance partner.  If, in a dance, I suddenly start to change the steps then any partner is highly likely to be confused and try even harder to pull me back into the established dance.  In essence, they will seek to exert pressure on me to help me to conform to the dance.  In this way, my new and innovative dance steps are likely to be a short-lived change and I will quickly revert to ‘being back to normal’.

If I truly want to change the dance, I need to be clear and explicit about my intentions.  I need to ensure that my dance partner understands my intentions, sees a clear value to themselves in changing with me, and works with me to establish a new pattern, a new dance.  If, during the period of changing the dance, I revert back the previous dance steps then we will probably both feel comfortable and dance the old dance.  Establishing the new dance takes perseverance, fortitude and commitment from both parties.

Changing a dance involving people is relatively straightforward and the process to achieve the change is clear.  I would suggest that the same process of change applies in our organisational lives where we also engage in a series of dances.  When we join a team or organisation we quickly understand the dance and learn to follow the rules and thereby lies the route to the status-quo that change agents always want to change.  The status-quo is, very often, a comfortable and comforting dance within the organisation and one which leaders need to recognise and value if they are to change it in any meaningful and sustainable way.  Similar to changing the dance, leaders need to make their intentions clear and we suggest they always do the following:

  • Expressly recognise the value of the current dance – people are accustomed to this and to bluntly seek to change it without understanding and valuing it is, in effect, showing a lack of value and respect for their work in the past.  Not the best foundation for taking a team with you.
  • Expressly recognise the changing business context and the fact that the old dance is not as effective in the new context as it was in the old, and therefore create a compelling case for change
  • Clearly state the new dance – the purpose, the principles and the behaviours that you want and, be equally clear in the outcome that you wish to achieve.
  • Ensure that this positive outcome focus addresses the WIIFM (What’s In It For Me) factors at all levels so that you have the leverage to engage people in the changes
  • Engage people in the change – don’t impose it upon them.  Set the direction and outcomes and then work with people to create the journey.
  • Recognise and value contributions as and when they arise, from all parties
  • Be insistent, persistent and consistent in driving the new dance steps.

How will you manage change?

Sustainable organisational change often requires a philosophical leap, a change of attitude and behaviour.  It also requires a lot of hard work, and the traditional rigour of project and programme management techniques.

It never ceases to surprise people the sheer amount of work that takes place in an organisational change programme.  Even in a modestly sized business, the amount of activity required to maintain engagement, control and forward momentum can be quite overwhelming for the uninitiated.  To further complicate matters, this activity often has to take place in an environment of turbulence or perhaps even secrecy, dependent on the nature of the change.

Never lose sight of the fact that organisational change is a project or programme like most others.  If you apply the rigour of traditional project and programme management techniques you will increase your chances of maintaining engagement, momentum and ultimately success.

10 tips for managing organisational change

  • Adopt and adapt a methodology for project management that suits you.
    There are lots of standard models and methods, none of which are likely to suit you ‘out of the box’.  They will however provide a useful template to build an approach that suits you.
  • Define the roles of those involved.
    A project involves a discrete team and does not necessarily have to respect the current job titles of those involved.  Take time to define the roles you need within the project and who is going to fulfil each one.
  • Wear multiple hats.
    Defining roles becomes quite scary as it often makes the project feel large and unwieldy.  Don’t forget that people can wear multiple hats in a project context.  In fact there are very few roles that can’t be combined.
  • Respect reporting lines.
    Your methodology should define reporting lines – respect them!  Nothing is guaranteed to collapse a project structure more quickly than people missing steps in reporting.
  • Define success early and revisit often.
    Don’t be afraid to change the parameters that will determine whether your organisational change project is a success.  The world changes, so can your goals.
  • Create a baseline and track progress.
    People often forget what yesterday looked like.  Make a baseline, track against it, and report often
  • Communicate, communicate, communicate.
    You can’t communicate too much during organisational change, and you can’t work too hard to ensure clarity.  To use an old adage, “tell em, what you’re gonna tell ’em, tell ’em, then tell ’em what you told ’em”.
  • If it feels too complicated, make it simpler (part 1).
    Organisational change can be a complex beast.  Respect the complexity and manage it as multiple projects.
  • If it feels too complicated, make it simpler (part 2).
    Don’t feel obliged to track EVERY detail.  Manage only what needs to be managed.
  • Celebrate success.
    Never let an organisational change project fizzle out.  Always declare an end, celebrate the efforts of those involved and recognise what you’ve achieved.